In high school English learning, especially in reading comprehension, "long and difficult sentences" are the most troublesome. Today, Mr. Wang arranged for his classmates to analyze the important features of English sentences, "three longs, two shorts, and one juxtaposition", and created a set of useful methods to help students easily solve long and difficult sentences!
In these two sentences, there is only the backbone component and no modification component. Sentences like this have basically the same word order (word order) as Chinese and English, and they are both subject-department-table or subject-predicate-object, which is very easy to understand.
It can be seen from the examples that the positions of the modified components in Chinese and English are different. When there are many modifiers in a sentence, the sentence becomes very long and difficult to understand.
This sentence contains a large number of prepositional phrases as a modifier. We bracket all the prepositional phrases in this sentence, and the sentence becomes:
At this point, you can see that although this sentence is very long, the real trunk is only two words I returned. It can be seen that prepositional phrases are one of the reasons that make English sentences long and difficult!
Of course, the above sentences are relatively simple (a small amount of prepositional phrases have little effect on sentence meaning understanding), but when more modifiers similar to prepositional phrases appear in the sentence, it is conceivable that due to the difference in Chinese and English word order , English sentences will be beyond recognition and difficult to understand. From this point of view, the flexible modifiers in English are the number one criminals that make English sentences long and difficult. As long as these modifiers are solved, long English sentences can be solved.
Fortunately, although the number of these modifiers is large and the position is not easy to grasp, their types are very fixed. Mr. Wang summarized these modifiers into three advantages and two disadvantages. The so-called “three-length” refers to the three longer modifiers that make up long and difficult sentences (ie prepositional phrases, clauses, and non-predicate verb phrases); the so-called two shortnesses refer to those embedded in sentences that slightly increase the complexity of the sentence Two shorter modifiers (ie adjective, adverb). In addition to three lengths and two shorts, another structure that complicates sentences is the parallel structure. Parallel juxtaposition is an important means to make sentences longer by some conjunctive conjunctions (and, or, as well as, etc.).
In fact, even longer sentences are composed of very simple stem components (the basic word order of the stem component is consistent with the Chinese word order, and there are also several special sentence patterns that are inconsistent with the Chinese word order, such as there be sentence pattern, It is adj. For sb. to do sentence pattern, inverted sentence pattern, emphasize sentence pattern, etc.) plus these three lengths, two shorts, and juxtaposition.
If the trunk of a sentence is compared to a tree trunk, then the modifier can be compared to lush foliage. If you can mark these branches and leaves, the trunk will naturally be clear. When marking, just mark the sentences one by one. But before we do, we need to learn where each component starts and where it ends. The following is a detailed description of the three-by-two and the two-by-one by the study brother, and the method of labeling each component is given.
[Definition] A clause is a compound sentence that cannot be formed independently, but has a subject part and a predicate part. It is a non-subject part guided by the relational words such as who, who, who, why, where, how, which, if, and though.
[Definition] Non-predicate verbs refer to several variations when the verb is not a predicate in the sentence. It mainly includes three types of verb infinitives, verb nouns and participles (present and past participles). Non-predicate verbs cannot stand alone as predicates, but instead serve as other components of the sentence. Structures that begin with non-predicate verbs and represent an independent and complete meaning are called non-predicate verb phrases.
[Start and stop identification] When marking a non-predicate verb phrase, it must start with the infinitive (to do), verb (doing), or participle (present parting or past participle done), and terminate in the following four cases.
From the above analysis, we can see that although the positions of adjectives and adverbs in English are slightly different from those in Chinese, in general, they are short and easy to identify, and have little effect on sentence understanding, so they are being modified. Adjectives and adverbs can be left unlabeled when the components are labeled.
The requirements for marking parallel structures are: box the parallel words and underline the parallel items. When marking, find the parallel words first, and then find the parallel items. When labeling parallel parallel structures of the form A and B, you should first find B (that is, the right side item) and then A (that is, the left side item). Since the modifier in English is often placed after the head word, the two side items A and B may each have a long tail, forming the form of A… and B…, causing A to be relatively far from and difficult to identify. , And B is usually close to and, easy to identify. After finding B, using the principle that A and B have the same structure and similar meanings, it is easy to determine A.(Responsible editor: admin)