Sixty years ago, the founders of the People's Republic of China, together with more than 1,200 NPC deputies from universal suffrage, convened the first meeting of the first National People's Congress, adopted the Constitution of the People's Republic of China, and have since established The People's Congress system, the fundamental political system of the People's Republic of China. China, a country with a history of more than 5,000 years of civilization and hundreds of millions of people, has established a new type of political system in which the people are the masters of the country. It has epoch-making significance in the history of China ’s political development and even in the history of world political development.
Today, we are here to hold a grand gathering to celebrate the 60th anniversary of the founding of the National People's Congress. It is to review the establishment and development of the People's Congress system, and to strengthen the self-confidence, theoretical confidence, and system confidence of the socialist road with Chinese characteristics. We will uphold and improve the people's congress system, better organize and mobilize people of all ethnic groups throughout the country to achieve the "two hundred years" goal and the Chinese dream of the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation.
On September 5, 2014, the CPC Central Committee and the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress held a grand celebration in the Great Hall of the People to celebrate the 60th anniversary of the founding of the National People's Congress. Xi Jinping, General Secretary of the CPC Central Committee, State President and Chairman of the Central Military Commission, delivered an important speech at the conference. Xinhua News Agency reporter Xie Huanchi / photo
After the Opium War of 1840, China gradually became a semi-colonial and semi-feudal society. At that time, in order to save the nation from peril and achieve national rejuvenation, the Chinese people and countless people with lofty ideals worked tirelessly to find a political system model that fits the national conditions. Prior to the Revolution of 1911, the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom Movement, the Westernization Movement, the Reform Movement of 1898, the Boxer Movement, and the New Deal in the late Qing Dynasty failed. After the Revolution of 1911, China tried various forms of constitutional monarchy, restoration of the monarchy, parliamentary system, multi-party system, and presidential system. Various political forces and their representatives appeared on the scene, but they could not find the correct answer. China is still a broken mountain, Poor and weak, the great powers are still arrogant and seeking benefits in China, and the Chinese people still live in misery and humiliation.
In the great struggle of the Chinese people, the Communist Party was born. Since its inception, the Communist Party of China has made it its mission to realize the mastership of the Chinese people and the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation. Finally, the three mountains of imperialism, feudalism, and bureaucratic capitalism were completely overthrown, and the People's Republic of China was established. Hundreds of millions of Chinese people have become the masters of the country and society. This great historical event fundamentally changed the tragic fate of China's internal and external problems and slaughtered by others in modern times.
After the Chinese Communist Party has led the Chinese people to victory in the revolution, how should the state power be organized? How should the state govern? This is a fundamental issue concerning the future of the country and the fate of the people. After practical exploration and theoretical thinking, the Chinese Communists have found the answer. As early as 1940, Comrade Mao Zedong said: "Without the proper form of political power, you cannot represent the country. China can now adopt the National People's Congress, the Provincial People's Congress, the County People's Congress, and the District People's Congress until the people of the township. A system of congresses and governments elected by congresses at all levels. "
All representatives of the first session of the First National People's Congress of the People's Republic of China took a group photo on September 21, 1954. Chairman Mao Zedong was with the delegates. From the front row: Dong Biwu, Zhou Enlai, Li Jishen, Liu Shaoqi, Mao Zedong, Song Qingling, Zhang Lan, Lin Boqu.
The birth of new China laid the prerequisites and conditions for the Chinese people to put this idea into practice. In September 1949, the "Common Program of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference", which had the status of an interim constitution, solemnly announced that the People's Congress system was implemented in New China. In September 1954, the Constitution of the People's Republic of China adopted at the first session of the National People's Congress clearly stated: "All power in the People's Republic of China belongs to the people. The organs for the people to exercise power are the National People's Congress and local people's congresses at all levels. "
The implementation of the people's congress system in China is a great creation of the Chinese people in the history of the human political system. It is a basic conclusion drawn from the profound lessons of China ’s political life since modern times. It is the historical result of the radical changes and development of Chinese society for more than 100 years. It is an inevitable choice for the Chinese people to take over and master their own destiny. In the past 60 years, especially in the 30 years of reform and opening up, the people's congress system has been continuously consolidated and developed, showing its vitality. 60 years of practice have fully proved that the people's congress system is a good system that conforms to China's national conditions and reality, reflects the nature of a socialist country, guarantees that the people are the masters of the country, and guarantees the realization of the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation. Comrade Deng Xiaoping once said: "What we implement is the unicameral system of the National People's Congress, which is most in line with China's reality. If the policy is correct and the direction is correct, this system will be of great benefit, it will help the country to thrive and avoid a lot of concerns. Comrade Jiang Zemin emphasized that the people's congress system "is a summary of our party's long-term experience in building people's power and is also a major feature and advantage of our party's leadership in state affairs." Comrade Hu Jintao also pointed out: "The people's congress system is an important way and the highest form of realization for the Chinese people to be the masters of the country, and an important institutional carrier of China's socialist political civilization."
-To uphold and improve the people's congress system, we must unwaveringly adhere to the leadership of the Communist Party of China. The leadership of the Communist Party of China is the most essential characteristic of socialism with Chinese characteristics. Without the Communist Party, there would be no New China, and there would be no prosperity and prosperity of New China. Upholding the core of the strong leadership of the Communist Party of China is the destiny of the Chinese nation. The leadership of the Communist Party of China is to support and guarantee the people to be the masters of the country. We must adhere to the party's core role of overseeing the overall situation and coordinating the leadership of all parties. Through the system of people's congresses, we must ensure that the party's line, policies, and decisions are fully implemented and effectively implemented in the work of the state. It is necessary to support and ensure that the state power organs carry out their work in an active, independent, responsible and coordinated manner in accordance with the Constitution and Law. We must continue to strengthen and improve the party's leadership, be good at making the party's claims become the will of the state through legal procedures, be good at making candidates recommended by party organizations to become leaders of state organs of government through legal procedures, and be good at implementing the party's control of the state and society Leaders are good at using the principle of democratic centralism to safeguard the authority of the party and the country, and to maintain unity and unity among the entire party and the country.
-To uphold and improve the people's congress system, we must ensure and develop the people as the masters of the country. The people being the masters is the essence and core of socialist democracy. People's democracy is the life of socialism. Without democracy, there will be no socialism, there will be no socialist modernization, and there will be no great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation. We must insist that all state power belongs to the people, adhere to the people's subjective status, and support and guarantee that the people exercise state power through the people's congresses. It is necessary to expand people's democracy, improve the democratic system, enrich the forms of democracy, broaden the channels for democracy, expand the orderly political participation of citizens from all levels and in various fields, and develop a broader, fuller, and more sound people's democracy. All work in the country must implement the party's mass line, keep in close touch with the people, listen to the people's voices, respond to the people's expectations, constantly solve the people's most direct and most realistic interests, and gather the wisdom and strength of the vast majority of the people.
-To uphold and improve the people's congress system, we must comprehensively advance the rule of law. To develop people's democracy, we must adhere to administering the country according to law, maintaining the legal authority of the Constitution, and institutionalizing and legalizing democracy so that such systems and laws do not change due to changes in leaders and leaders ’views and attention. The Constitution is the fundamental law of the country. To adhere to governing the country according to law, we must first adhere to governing the country according to the constitution. We must adhere to the principle of governing the country according to law as the party's basic strategy for the people to govern the country, the rule of law as the basic way of governing the country, and continuously push forward the construction of the rule of law in China. It is necessary to promote the spirit of the socialist rule of law through the system of people's congresses, carry out and promote various national undertakings and tasks in accordance with laws and regulations formulated by the people's congresses and their standing committees, guarantee the people's equal participation and development rights, and maintain social equity Justice, respect and protection of human rights, and realize the rule of law in all national work.
-To uphold and improve the people's congress system, we must adhere to democratic centralism. Democratic centralism is the basic principle of China's state organization and activities. The people's congresses exercise state power in a unified way. The National People's Congress is the highest organ of state power, and the local people's congresses at all levels are local organs of state power. We must insist that the people exercise state power through the people's congresses; people's congresses at all levels are democratically elected and are accountable to and supervised by the people; state administrative organs, judicial organs, and procuratorial organs at all levels are elected by the people's congresses. The people's congress is responsible and supervised by the people's congress; the state organs have the right to make decisions, execute, and supervise the power with reasonable division of labor and mutual coordination; under the unified leadership of the central government, give full play to local initiative and enthusiasm, and ensure that the state organizes and promotes various undertakings in a unified and efficient manner .
First, strengthen and improve legislation. "A country is always strong and impermanent. Those who follow the law are strong and those who are weak are weak." After long-term efforts, a socialist legal system with Chinese characteristics has been formed, and our country and all aspects of social life have achieved overall success. Fa Keyi, this is our major achievement and a new starting point for us to move forward. The situation is developing and the times are advancing. The legal system must continue to develop with the development of the times and practice.
We must strengthen legislation in important areas, ensure that national development and major reforms are based on law, and better integrate development and reform decisions with legislative decisions. It is necessary to adhere to the problem-oriented approach, improve the pertinence, timeliness, systemicity, and operability of legislation, and give play to the role of legislative guidance and promotion. We must seize the key to improving the quality of legislation, promote scientific legislation, democratic legislation, improve the legislative system and procedures, and strive to make every piece of legislation in line with the spirit of the Constitution, reflect the will of the people, and win the support of the people.
Second, strengthen and improve law enforcement. The vitality of the law lies in its implementation, and the authority of the law lies in its implementation. "Acts are governed by laws and regulations are ruled by laws, and laws are disordered by laws." State administrative organs, judicial organs, and procuratorial organs at all levels are important subjects for the implementation of laws. Regardless of the phenomenon, we must resolutely rectify the problems of using power for personal gain, oppressing power, and arrogating private property, and it is strictly forbidden to infringe upon the legitimate rights and interests of the masses.
We must fully implement the basic strategy of administering the country according to law, adhere to the principle that everyone is equal before the law, speed up the construction of a socialist country ruled by law, and continue to advance the process of scientific legislation, strict law enforcement, fair justice, and law-abiding among the people. It is necessary to further advance administration according to law and accelerate the construction of a government ruled by law. Administrative organs at all levels must perform their duties in accordance with the law, adhere to the statutory duties, and do nothing without the authority of the law, and never allow any organization or individual to have the privilege to surpass the law. It is necessary to further promote fair justice, deepen the reform of the judicial system, accelerate the establishment of a fair, efficient and authoritative judicial system, improve the human rights judicial guarantee system, severely punish judicial corruption, and let the people feel fairness and justice in every judicial case.
People's congresses and their standing committees at all levels should assume the supervisory responsibilities entrusted by the Constitution and laws, safeguard the unity, dignity, and authority of the country's legal system, strengthen supervision of the law enforcement and judicial work of the "one house, two courts," and ensure that laws and regulations are effectively implemented and administrative The powers of trial, prosecution, and prosecutorial power have been properly exercised. Local people's congresses and their standing committees must ensure that constitutional laws, administrative regulations, and higher level people's congresses and their standing committee resolutions are respected and enforced within their respective administrative regions. It is necessary to strengthen party discipline supervision, administrative supervision, audit supervision, judicial supervision and various forms of disciplinary supervision within state organs. To broaden the channels of people's power to supervise, citizens have the right to criticize and make suggestions to any state organ and state staff, and have the right to lodge a complaint, complaint or report any relevant state organ or state staff ’s violations of law and dereliction of duty. . It is necessary to improve the complaint and complaint reporting mechanism, strengthen procuratorial supervision, and ensure that rights and responsibilities are obligated, that rights are supervised, infringements are to be compensated, and violations of the law must be investigated.
On March 17, 2018, the first session of the Thirteenth National People's Congress held its fifth plenary session in the Great Hall of the People. Xi Jinping was elected chairman of the People's Republic of China and chairman of the Central Military Commission of the People's Republic of China. This is Xi Jinping preparing to vote. Xinhua News Agency reporter Lan Hongguang / photo
The future and fate of a political party and a political regime depend on people's hearts and minds. What the people oppose and hate, we must resolutely prevent and crack down. The masses hate corruption the most, and we must stand firm against corruption. We must persist in using the system to manage power, manage affairs, and manage people, and quickly form an effective mechanism that does not want to be corrupt, cannot corrupt, and not dare to corrupt, let the people monitor power, let power operate in the sun, and confine power to the cage of the system. We must persist in fighting against "tigers" and "flies", persist in fighting corruption and fighting corruption, and work hard to solve the problem of corruption, and strive to create a clean and upright party and government style and social style, and continue to fight corruption and promote integrity. The new results are trusted by the people.
Fourth, strengthen ties with deputies to the people's congress and the people. The reason why the people's congress system has strong vitality and remarkable superiority is that it is deeply rooted in the people. The name of our country, and the names of our state organs at all levels, all bear the title of "people". This is our basic positioning of the Chinese socialist regime. More than 2.6 million people's congress deputies at all levels must faithfully represent the interests and will of the people and participate in the exercise of state power in accordance with the law. State organs at all levels and their staff, no matter what kind of work they do, serve the people. This basic positioning must not be vague or dilute at any time.
Strengthening ties with people's congress deputies and ties with the people is an inherent requirement for the implementation of the people's congress system, and a basic requirement for the people to elect and appoint representatives. State organs at all levels and their staff must use the power of the people, perform their duties, and serve the people. Strengthening ties with deputies to the people's congresses and the masses is an important part of being accountable to and supervised by the people. 2. People's opinions and suggestions, actively responding to social concerns, consciously accepting people's supervision, and seriously correcting shortcomings and errors in work.
People's congresses and their standing committees at all levels must adhere to the correct political direction, strengthen the sense of political responsibility in exercising the power of managing the state on behalf of the people, and fulfill the duties conferred by the Constitution and laws. It is necessary to improve the mechanism for members of the Standing Committee of the National People ’s Congress to contact the representatives of the people ’s congresses at this level, unblock the channels of public opinion and expression of social conditions, support and ensure that the people ’s deputies perform their duties in accordance with the law, optimize the structure of the members of the Standing Committee and special committees, and improve the organization system, work system, Proceedings. Party committees at all levels should strengthen and improve the party's leadership over the work of the people's congress, and support and ensure that the people's congress and its standing committees exercise their powers and carry out their work in accordance with law.
In designing and developing the national political system, we must pay attention to the organic unification of history and reality, theory and practice, form and content. We must persist in proceeding from the national conditions and from the actual situation. We must not only grasp the long-standing historical heritage, but also the development path that has been traversed, the accumulated political experience, and the formed political principles. We must also grasp the realistic requirements and focus on solving realistic problems. To cut off history, it is impossible to imagine that a “flying peak” on the political system was suddenly moved. The political system is used to regulate political relations, establish political order, promote the development of the country, and maintain the stability of the country. It is impossible to abstract judgments from specific social and political conditions, and it is not possible to be uniform and unified. In the political system, when we see that there are other countries and we do n’t, we simply think that they are lacking, and we want to move over; or, when we see that we have other countries, we simply think that they are redundant and we need to remove them. Both views are simplistic and one-sided, and are therefore incorrect.
"Orange is born in Huainan, but is born in Huaibei." We need to learn from the beneficial results of foreign political civilization, but we must not give up the fundamentals of China's political system. China has more than 9.6 million square kilometers of land and 56 ethnic groups. Who can we follow? Who can tell us what to do? For a colorful world, we should maintain an inclusive attitude, learn the good things of others with an open mind, digest and absorb the good things of others from an independent standpoint, and turn them into our own good things. However, we must not swallow the jujube or learn from Handan. Copying and copying the political system of another country will not work. It will refuse to accept the soil and soil, will not draw tigers into anti-dogs, and will even bury the future of the country. Only a system that roots the soil and absorbs sufficient nutrients can be the most reliable and effective.
There is no identical political system in the world, and there is no political system model that applies to all countries. "Everything is different, so are the feelings of things." Each country has different national conditions, and each country's political system is unique and determined by the people of this country. It is in this country's historical heritage, cultural traditions, economy and society. Based on development, it is the result of long-term development, gradual improvement, and endogenous evolution. The reason why the socialist political system with Chinese characteristics works, has vitality, and is efficient is because it has grown from the social soil of China. The socialist political system with Chinese characteristics has been and has been growing in China's social soil. To continue to thrive in the future, it must also be deeply rooted in China's social soil.
Evaluate whether a country's political system is democratic and effective. It mainly depends on whether the national leadership can be replaced in an orderly manner, whether all people can manage state and social affairs, manage economic and cultural undertakings, and whether the people can express their interests smoothly. Requirements, can all aspects of society effectively participate in the country's political life, can national decision-making be scientific and democratic, can all aspects of talents enter the national leadership and management system through fair competition, and can the ruling party implement the national Whether the leadership of affairs and the use of power can be effectively restricted and monitored.
After long-term efforts, we have made decisive progress in solving these key issues. We abolished the lifelong system of leading cadres that actually existed, and generally implemented a tenure system for leading cadres, realizing the orderly replacement of state organs and leadership. We have continuously expanded the people's orderly political participation, and the people have achieved mastership in a wide range of content and at various levels. We adhere to the development of the broadest patriotic united front and the development of unique socialist deliberative democracy, which has effectively consolidated the wisdom and strength of all parties, groups, ethnic groups, strata, and people from all walks of life. We strive to build a decision-making mechanism that understands people's sentiments, reflects public opinion, concentrates people's wisdom, and cherishes people's power, enhances transparency of decision-making and public participation, and ensures that decisions are in line with the interests and aspirations of the people. We actively develop a wide selection of talents and a dynamic mechanism for selecting and employing talents, and have gathered outstanding talents from various fields into the cause of the party and the country. We adhere to the common advancement of administering the country according to law, governing according to law, and administering according to law. We adhere to the integration of a country governed by law, a government governed by law, and a society governed by law. The level of rule of law in the entire society has been continuously improved. We have established and improved a multi-level supervision system, and improved various systems of open affairs to ensure that party and state leadership organs and personnel exercise their powers in accordance with statutory authorities and procedures.
China implements a state body led by the working class and based on a people-peasant alliance based on the workers-peasants alliance. The system has distinct Chinese characteristics. Such a set of institutional arrangements can effectively ensure that the people enjoy broader and fuller rights and freedoms, and that people can participate in state governance and social governance. They can effectively regulate the political relations of the country and develop vibrant party relations, ethnic relations, and religious relations. , Class relations, compatriots at home and abroad, strengthen national cohesion, and form a political situation of stability and unity; be able to focus on major issues, effectively promote the liberation and development of social productive forces, promote the causes of modernization, and promote the continuous improvement of people's quality of life; It can effectively safeguard the country's independence and independence, effectively safeguard the country's sovereignty, security, and development interests, and safeguard the well-being of the Chinese people and the Chinese nation.
On March 5, 2018, Xi Jinping, General Secretary of the CPC Central Committee, State President, and Chairman of the Central Military Commission attended the deliberations of the Inner Mongolian delegation at the first meeting of the 13th National People's Congress. Xinhua News Agency reporter Xie Huanchi / photo
For more than 30 years since the reform and opening up, China ’s economic strength, overall national strength, and people ’s living standards have continued to rise to new levels. We have continuously overcome the difficulties and obstacles that are rare in the world on the way forward. The society has maintained harmony and stability for a long time. These facts fully prove that China ’s socialist democratic politics has strong vitality, and that the path of socialist political development with Chinese characteristics is the correct way to meet China ’s national conditions and ensure that the people are the masters of the country.
The political system of a country is determined by the economic and social foundation of the country, and at the same time it also affects the economic and social foundation of the country, and even plays a decisive role. Among the various systems of a country, the political system is a key link. Therefore, to strengthen the self-confidence of the socialist system with Chinese characteristics, we must first strengthen our confidence in the socialist political system with Chinese characteristics, and strengthen our confidence and determination to follow the path of socialist political development with Chinese characteristics.
Socialist democracy with Chinese characteristics is a new thing and a good thing. Of course, this is not to say that China's political system is perfect and that it does not need to be perfected and developed. Institutional self-confidence is not self-righteousness and self-satisfaction, nor is it stagnant and self-sufficient. It is to unify firm institutional self-confidence with continuous reform and innovation, and continuously promote the improvement and development of the institutional system on the basis of adhering to the basic political system and basic political system. We have always believed that the requirements of our democratic rule of law construction and the expansion of people's democracy and economic and social development have not been fully met. There are still imperfections in the system, mechanisms, procedures, norms and specific operations of socialist democracy, and in protecting the people There are also some shortcomings in democratic rights and giving play to the people's creative spirit, which must continue to be improved. In the process of comprehensively deepening reform, we must actively and steadily advance the reform of the political system, with the goal of ensuring that the people are the masters of the country, with the goal of enhancing the vitality of the party and the country, and mobilizing the people's enthusiasm, and continuously build a socialist political civilization.
The election meeting was held in Xigou District, Xigou Town, Pingshun County, Shanxi Province on September 27, 1953. National well-known agricultural labor models Li Shunda and Shen Jilan were elected as representatives of the People's Congress of Xigou Township. The picture shows Shen Jilan, Li Shunda, Han Chunlan, and Zhang Qiuquan who were selected as representatives at the Xigou District Election Conference (from left) watching the election certificate. Xinhua News Agency reporter Xiang Huageng / photo
The development of socialist democracy is the right meaning in the topic of advancing the modernization of the national governance system and capacity. The overall goal of comprehensively deepening reform proposed by the Third Plenary Session of the Eighteenth Central Committee of the Party is a two-sentence whole, which is to improve and develop the socialist system with Chinese characteristics, and to modernize the national governance system and governance capabilities. The previous sentence stipulated the fundamental direction. Our direction is the road of socialism with Chinese characteristics, not any other road. The latter sentence provides a clear direction for improving and developing the socialist system with Chinese characteristics under the guidance of the fundamental direction. Both words are complete.
The key to the development of socialist democracy is to increase and expand our advantages and characteristics, not to weaken and reduce our advantages and characteristics. We must persist in giving play to the core role of the party in overseeing the overall situation and coordinating the leadership of all parties, improve the party's level of scientific governance, democratic governance, and governance in accordance with the law, ensure that the party leads the people to effectively govern the country, and effectively prevent the phenomenon of headlessness and scattered sand. We must insist that all the power of the state belongs to the people, both to ensure that the people implement democratic elections in accordance with the law, and to ensure that the people implement democratic decision-making, democratic management, and democratic supervision in accordance with the law, and effectively prevent the phenomenon of promises during the election and no-one after the election. We must uphold and improve the multi-party cooperation and political consultation system led by the Communist Party of China, strengthen the cooperation and coordination of various social forces, and effectively prevent the emergence of party disputes and mutual conflicts. We must adhere to and improve the system of regional ethnic autonomy, consolidate socialist ethnic relations of equality, solidarity, mutual assistance, and harmony, promote the harmonious coexistence, solidarity, and harmonious development of all ethnic groups, and effectively prevent the occurrence of ethnic divisions and ethnic conflicts. We must uphold and improve the system of grassroots mass autonomy, develop grassroots democracy, guarantee the people's direct exercise of democratic rights in accordance with the law, and effectively prevent people from having formal and virtually no power. We must adhere to and improve the system and principles of democratic centralism, urge all types of state organs to improve their capacity and efficiency, enhance coordination and cooperation, and form a strong synergy for governing the country and administration, and effectively prevent mutual constraints and serious internal friction.
In short, we must continue to promote the institutionalization, standardization, and proceduralization of socialist democratic politics, make better use of the superiority of the socialist political system with Chinese characteristics, and provide a more complete institutional guarantee for the prosperity of the party and country and long-term stability.
60 years a Jiazi. At this moment, let us revisit a speech made by Comrade Mao Zedong at the first meeting of the First National People's Congress 60 years ago. He said: "We have full confidence to overcome all difficulties and difficulties, Building a great socialist republic. We are moving forward. We are doing an extremely glorious and great cause that our predecessors have never done. Our purpose must be achieved. Our purpose must be achieved. "(Responsible editor: admin)