In 2018, the China Children and Teenagers' Foundation released the "Report on the Survey of the Status of Chinese Children's Height Management", which shows that 47.2% of children in China are at an average height, and 30.8% of children are at the middle or lower level. 54.2% of the children in the survey did not reach their genetic height.
What is more worrying is that many parents are satisfied with their children's current height and are unaware of the reality that more than half of their children cannot reach their genetic height. In fact, the height of a child can be achieved through acquired management. However, more than 60% of parents choose to intervene only when their children's height has become a problem. At this time, the effect is not satisfactory. Therefore, it is important to understand the child's growth and development knowledge and master the child's height velocity (HV).
There is a certain standard for how long a normal child should grow each year, and our most intuitive way is to observe the child's height growth each year through the growth curve (incremental growth curve depicting the characteristics of height growth rate over time), that is, We often say growth rate. This is valuable for assessing the growth and development of children, especially children with specific clinical conditions. A child's growth rate is far more important than absolute height. Early in the course of all chronic diseases, measuring height growth rate is the most sensitive to detecting abnormal growth. Many parents worry that their children are too short, but unfortunately, many parents do not understand the growth rate of height. Because height is affected by genetic factors and acquired living conditions, the height of each child varies greatly, but the growth rate of children has a certain pattern to follow. If you deviate too much from these rules, it means that there may be a problem with your child's height growth.
According to the height and weight percentile table of children and adolescents aged 0-18 made by the Institute of Growth and Development of the Capital Institute of Pediatrics, heights are in the normal range from the 3rd to the 97th percentile, the 3rd or 97th percentile The quantile may be abnormal and needs attention.
Growth rate is an important monitoring indicator of children's health. In general, normal growth patterns indicate good health, while slower than normal growth rates indicate the presence of subacute or chronic diseases, including endocrine growth disorders.
Height growth is a continuous but non-linear growth phase (infancy, childhood and adolescence), each period has different characteristics. Boys and girls have similar growth periods but differ in timing and speed of growth, especially during adolescence.
During infancy (within 2 years after birth), the length of the body grows very quickly initially, and then gradually decreases. During this period, the total length increased by 30-35cm.
Childhood puberty is characterized by a relatively constant height growth rate and a slight slowdown in later childhood. The height growth rate of most children is as follows (10th to 90th percentiles):
8-14cm / year growth suddenly during adolescence. Girls' adolescent growth spurts usually start around 10 years of age, but precocious people may start as early as 8 years old. Adolescent growth spurts in boys usually begin around the age of 12, but precocious men may start as early as the age of 10. During this period, parents should pay close attention to the changes in bone maturity and the closure of the epiphyseal line, and take time to do a good sprint.
Height affects children's life, learning, work, marriage, etc. Every parent wants his child to grow taller. If you find that your child grows slower than their peers during growth and development, and less than 3 centimeters a year, you need to be vigilant. Height is the result of a combination of factors that cause children to grow slowly for many reasons, including growth hormone deficiency, hypothyroidism, familial slow growth, delayed adolescent physical development, and bone diseases (cartilage dystrophy). , Congenital osteogenesis imperfecta, Kashin-Beck disease), growth retardation caused by systemic diseases, chromosomal diseases such as Turner syndrome, mental factors, exercise, sleep, low birth weight children, younger than gestational age, growth will also occur Slow. Reduced pituitary function and intracranial tumors can cause slow growth. Among the more common causes are growth hormone deficiency, idiopathic dwarf, and genetic metabolic diseases.
Many systemic diseases and conditions can cause slow growth rates, including kidney disease, tumors, heart disease, gastrointestinal diseases, immune diseases, and metabolic diseases. In addition, some treatments (such as corticosteroids) may cause insufficient growth. Endocrine disease-induced dwarfism accounts for more than 50% of clinical dwarf patients, the most common of which is the growth hormone disorder of the pituitary gland. Growth hormone can promote the division and proliferation of bone, cartilage, muscle and other tissue cells and protein synthesis, thereby accelerating the growth and development of bones and muscles. A lack of growth hormone may cause your child to grow slowly and short.
Idiopathic short stature, that is, short stature without potential pathological conditions, normal growth hormone levels, but the growth rate of height is usually a normal low value, is a common cause of short stature in childhood. In other words, the child does not see any abnormality, that is, he is shorter than his peers.
Familial or hereditary short stature is mostly a normal variation. Usually, these children's height growth rate has been at a normal low value. If members of the family are abnormally short, the next generation is more likely to suffer from dwarfism. But genetic factors can also be affected by acquired growth environment factors, inherited by seven, and acquired by three.
In the process of children's growth, we all attach great importance to it. Each parent wants his child to grow taller and faster, but growing too fast is not a good thing. We must follow the rules of children's growth. Some children grow too fast in the early stages, probably because the bone age grows faster, bone age is greater than the actual age, and the growth potential is consumed in advance, which may result in a shortened uniform growth period and early puberty. Children who arrive early in puberty will be shorter than their peers when they reach adulthood.
Endocrine causes of abnormally rapid growth in childhood and adolescence include: precocious puberty (including congenital adrenal hyperplasia virilizing type), excessive growth hormone (pituitary giantosis), hyperthyroidism, and familial glucocorticoid deficiency or resistance.
The abnormally fast-growing non-endocrine causes include exogenous obesity, 47, XYY syndrome, Klinefelter syndrome, and Marfan syndrome.
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