"Several Opinions on Deepening the Integration of Industry and Education" (hereinafter referred to as "Opinions") reiterates some of the education systems and educational principles that have gradually developed in the field of higher education and vocational education in China in recent years, and also affirms applied undergraduate colleges and vocational colleges Some exploration and practice have been carried out in the integration of production and education and school-enterprise cooperation. However, unlike previous national policy documents on talent training methods, accelerating the development of vocational education, and guiding the transformation of local undergraduate colleges and universities, the Opinions focus on the "deepening" of the integration of production and education, and pay more attention to production and education. The establishment of a collaborative system of education integration and cooperation. In particular, the "Opinions" regards enterprises as an important subject of the integration of production and education, regards the role of enterprises as the key to the integration of production and education, attaches great importance to the role of industry and social organizations in promoting the integration of production and education, and focuses on the design of mechanisms. Protection and realization of the interests of participants.
The "Opinions" clearly put forward the need to "strengthen the important role of enterprises" and directly target the "bottleneck" of the integration of production and education to train talents. In the past ten years, higher vocational colleges and local undergraduate colleges have started the transformation and development with the talent training model as the core, and the school-enterprise integration and the integration of production and education have made great progress. However, the practice of transformation and development of these colleges and universities proves that relying on the initiative of the school alone is not enough. The key to achieving significant results in the integration of production and education is to make the enterprise truly an important subject for talent training.
At this stage, a considerable number of college-enterprise cooperation is still a shallow level of cooperation. For example, corporate personnel participate in revising professional training programs and opening up. It is easier for companies to provide internship opportunities for students and exercise opportunities for teachers. It is still quite difficult to infiltrate the integration of production and education into the entire process of talent cultivation, and truly allow enterprises to take the cultivation of talents as their conscious fulfillment of responsibilities. The due diligence department has issued policies to encourage enterprises to participate, but the policy tools owned by the education department are limited and it is difficult to have an effective impact on enterprises. Audit and other departments are still restricting schools in the way of regulating administrative institutions. In some places, the enthusiasm of universities for the integration of production and education and school-enterprise cooperation has been severe. In this case, the integration of production and education and school-enterprise cooperation will encounter bottlenecks, and urgently need more comprehensive departments to take the lead in policy breakthroughs at a higher level.
The "Opinions" clearly put forward the important role of enterprises in the integration of production and education. For example, the construction of the production-education integration system in the "Guidelines" requires that "the key role of the enterprise be the key", and in the "principle" Put forward "Fully mobilize the enthusiasm and initiative of enterprises to participate in the integration of production and education, build a long-term mechanism for school-enterprise cooperation", and put forward "gradually increasing the participation of industry enterprises in running schools" in the "main goals", etc. These have captured the integration of production and education key. Relevant opinions on "strengthening the important role of enterprises" involve enterprises participating in running schools, participating in teaching, participating in productive internship training, science and technology, and employee training. Although many contents have been made clear in the previous policies, the Opinions systematize these contents, especially the policy of vocational education is extended to undergraduate colleges and universities, such as "encouraging enterprises to rely on or unite vocational schools and colleges to set up industries Colleges and corporate studios, laboratories, innovation, and practice "," encouraging companies to stay in schools, attracting them to enter the enterprise, and integrating school-enterprise methods to attract competitive enterprises to build and share productive training with schools ", this is a local Undergraduate colleges and universities in the process of transformation provide a clear policy basis for school-enterprise cooperation, which can effectively eliminate the problems of irregularities in the school-enterprise cooperation of leaders of transitional institutions.
Article 11 of the "Opinions" specifically puts forward "playing the leading role of enterprises", "focusing on giving play to the leading role of demonstration of state-owned enterprises, especially central enterprises, and supporting all types of enterprises to participate in school-enterprise cooperation, receive internship training, and fulfill social responsibilities. Promote state-owned enterprises and support qualified state-owned enterprises to continue to run and strengthen vocational schools. " Enterprises, especially state-owned enterprises and central enterprises, play a key role in China's national economy and industry. They have advanced equipment and first-class technology, and a wealth of talents. They play an important role in China's technological progress and international competitiveness. These enterprises are also the most capable of College students provide quality internship training, but at the same time these companies are highly closed and have a comprehensive training system internally. Schools generally find it difficult to cooperate with these companies. The "Opinions" clearly pointed out that these enterprises must play a leading role and fulfill their social responsibilities, which can be said to be an important policy highlight.
The Opinion gives special attention to the role of industry organizations and social institutions in building a collaborative system. These institutions or organizations between enterprises and schools can be broadly divided into two categories: one is education and training institutions or industry enterprises that can provide innovation and entrepreneurship, cutting-edge technology courses, vocational training and teaching services. At present, vocational training has developed into a huge education industry. Training institutions that are keen on the market can design it in accordance with the needs of enterprises, use flexible mechanisms to gather educational resources, and develop educational products. It has not only directly provided training to unspecified people, but has also begun. Extensive penetration into full-time schools. Vocational training institutions and the education and training departments of large enterprises have already provided courses for vocational colleges and applied undergraduate colleges through service outsourcing, or have jointly established specialties to jointly build secondary (industry, industry) colleges. The transformation and development of colleges and application-oriented undergraduate institutions have played a positive role.
The "Opinions" affirmed this kind of exploration, and explicitly stated in "Creative Education Training Service Supply" that "encourage educational and training institutions, industries, and enterprises to jointly develop high-quality educational resources, and strongly support the development of" Internet + education and training. " Social organizations integrate school-enterprise resources, develop three-dimensional, selectable industrial technology courses and vocational training packages. Promote the mutual recognition of credits in the courses of universities and industry enterprises, allow and encourage universities to purchase innovative entrepreneurship and cutting-edge technologies from industry enterprises and social training institutions Courses and teaching services. "
The other type of organization is industry organizations and industry intermediary organizations. For a long time, under the model of a strong country and a weak society, the all-around type has all-inclusive, which has to a certain extent developed the industry organization. The "Opinions" attaches great importance to the role of industry organizations in promoting the two-way supply-demand integration of production and education, and proposes that industry authorities should actively support industry organizations in formulating work plans to deepen the integration of production and education through "function transfer, authorization, etc." School-enterprise cooperation and docking, education and teaching guidance, vocational skills appraisal and other services, "put forward the need to develop production-education integration intermediary organizations and service enterprises, and promote closer connection between schools and enterprises. The "Opinions" also put forward "to actively support third-party institutions in society to carry out the evaluation of the effectiveness of the integration of production and education, and improve the statistical evaluation system." In economically developed and vocational education-developed areas, such as Foshan and Dongguan in Guangdong, industry organizations and enterprises have been trying to assess the skills of school graduates, allowing the demand side to evaluate the training effect of the supply side, and to prevent schools from both cultivating and issuing certificates. Causes the phenomenon of mass drainage.
For a long time, the main reason why the integration of production and education stays at the surface is difficult to deepen, the main reason is that the interests and concerns of related parties have not been well protected, and the root cause lies in institutional constraints. The existing system has a lot of benefit distribution in school-enterprise cooperation, which has affected the school. In order for the educating system with the collaborative participation of enterprises, schools, industries, and society to operate effectively, it is necessary to address the interests and concerns of relevant parties and achieve win-win cooperation. This is also the focus of the Opinions. The parties involved in the integration of production and education include students, teachers, schools, enterprises, education and training institutions, social industry organizations, and various departments. For the interests of these parties, the Opinions are designed specifically. Specifically:
For students, the main focus is on safety and compensation. Safety issues will affect the enthusiasm of schools, especially enterprises, for arranging students for productive internships. The Opinions clearly proposes "to accelerate the development of student internship liability insurance and personal accident insurance, and encourage insurance companies to adopt modern apprenticeships and new enterprise apprenticeships. The insurance specifically determines the rate "; for the remuneration of the internship, the" Opinions "proposes" to protect the students' rights and interests such as reasonable remuneration ".
For enterprises, students participating in internship training may bring certain efficiency losses and arrange labor services generated by special guidance. For this part of the cost, the Opinions clearly "encourage enterprises by exploring ways to purchase services and implement tax policies. Directly accept student internship training "; for the school-enterprise joint construction internship training, the principle of co-construction and sharing is put forward," attracting advantageous enterprises and schools to jointly build and share productive training ". In addition, enterprises need financial support to participate in the integration of production and education in the form of investment. The "Opinions" clearly proposes to use the Chinese government-enterprise cooperation investment fund to support the construction of production-education integration projects and guide banks to develop diversified financing products suitable for the characteristics of production-education integration projects. Do a good job in supporting financial services with social capital cooperation models; actively support enterprises in equity capital financing in the capital market, issue standardized debt products, and increase investment in production-education integration training projects.
For teachers, the Opinions support enterprise personnel to teach in schools, and encourage the exploration of special post plans for industrial teachers; vocational schools and colleges and universities are allowed to independently hire part-time teachers and determine part-time compensation in accordance with laws and regulations. For professional teachers, it proposes to improve teacher qualification standards and professional and technical post evaluation methods that meet the characteristics of vocational education and applied universities, encourage teachers to engage in applied research, promote science and technology, and clarify the "technologies obtained by scientific and technical personnel in vocational schools and colleges according to law." Incentive income is not included in performance wages and is not included in the base of total unit wages. "
For relevant social institutions, in order to encourage education and training institutions, industries, and enterprises to develop high-quality educational resources, the Opinions allow and encourage universities to purchase innovative entrepreneurship, cutting-edge technology courses and teaching services from industry enterprises and social training institutions, and encourage local and industry Enterprises and schools cultivate intermediary organizations for the integration of production and education through the purchase of services and cooperative establishment, and build a community of school-enterprise interests to form a stable and mutually beneficial cooperation mechanism.
For schools, in addition to expressly allowing schools to obtain corporate education resources in the form of purchasing services, and co-building and sharing with enterprises, it also clearly proposes to optimize investment, especially the funding mechanism, to reflect vocational schools, application-oriented colleges and universities, and Characteristics and costs of running schools with special characteristics. A reasonable financial system will give schools more flexibility in handling school-enterprise cooperation issues during internship training.
Through the above, the interests of all parties involved in the collaborative education system are clearly guaranteed. Among them, there are three types of ways to support enterprises and industry organizations to participate in the integration of production and education: or the purchase of school services, the co-construction and win-win of schools and enterprises, tax relief and financing support. The clarification of these support methods has solved some difficult problems in school-enterprise cooperation, and provided a stable policy foundation for related parties to form long-term cooperative relationships based on their interests. (Author: Guo such as the University of Education Management and Policy / economics professor at the Institute of Education Institute of Education) Sihong talent network . Zhangshu Talent Network .(Responsible editor: admin)